|OLD TESTAMENT||NEW TESTAMENT|
|Old Testament |
|Epistles of |
|1 Thess. |
|1 καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἀρταξέρξης ἐδωρήσατο Εσθηρ ὅσα ὑπῆρχεν Αμαν τῷ διαβόλῳ καὶ Μαρδοχαῖος προσεκλήθη ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως ὑπέδειξεν γὰρ Εσθηρ ὅτι ἐνοικείωται αὐτῇ 2 ἔλαβεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς τὸν δακτύλιον ὃν ἀφείλατο Αμαν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτὸν Μαρδοχαίῳ καὶ κατέστησεν Εσθηρ Μαρδοχαῖον ἐπὶ πάντων τῶν Αμαν 3 καὶ προσθεῖσα ἐλάλησεν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα καὶ προσέπεσεν πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ καὶ ἠξίου ἀφελεῖν τὴν Αμαν κακίαν καὶ ὅσα ἐποίησεν τοῖς Ιουδαίοις 4 ἐξέτεινεν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς Εσθηρ τὴν ῥάβδον τὴν χρυσῆν ἐξηγέρθη δὲ Εσθηρ παρεστηκέναι τῷ βασιλεῖ 5 καὶ εἶπεν Εσθηρ εἰ δοκεῖ σοι καὶ εὗρον χάριν πεμφθήτω ἀποστραφῆναι τὰ γράμματα τὰ ἀπεσταλμένα ὑπὸ Αμαν τὰ γραφέντα ἀπολέσθαι τοὺς Ιουδαίους οἵ εἰσιν ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ σου 6 πῶς γὰρ δυνήσομαι ἰδεῖν τὴν κάκωσιν τοῦ λαοῦ μου καὶ πῶς δυνήσομαι σωθῆναι ἐν τῇ ἀπωλείᾳ τῆς πατρίδος μου 7 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ βασιλεὺς πρὸς Εσθηρ εἰ πάντα τὰ ὑπάρχοντα Αμαν ἔδωκα καὶ ἐχαρισάμην σοι καὶ αὐτὸν ἐκρέμασα ἐπὶ ξύλου ὅτι τὰς χεῖρας ἐπήνεγκε τοῖς Ιουδαίοις τί ἔτι ἐπιζητεῖς 8 γράψατε καὶ ὑμεῖς ἐκ τοῦ ὀνόματός μου ὡς δοκεῖ ὑμῖν καὶ σφραγίσατε τῷ δακτυλίῳ μου ὅσα γὰρ γράφεται τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπιτάξαντος καὶ σφραγισθῇ τῷ δακτυλίῳ μου οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῖς ἀντειπεῖν||1 That same day, Assuerus made a present to Esther of Aman’s house, that was the Jews’ enemy, and gave audience to Mardochaeus; for now Esther had told him that this was her uncle. 2 He took back, too, the ring he had bade Aman wear, and gave it to Mardochaeus instead; and Mardochaeus was given charge of Esther’s house. 3 Nor would Esther be content, till she had fallen weeping at the king’s feet and prayed him to prevent the mischief Aman had thought to do by his false plotting against the Jews. 4 The golden sceptre was held out, in sign of the royal favour, and she rose to her feet and stood fronting him. 5 Please it the king’s grace, she said, to look favourably on my suit, and find nothing in it to his disadvantage. I would have new dispatches sent out, to revoke the order made by Aman, our crafty enemy, for the slaying of the Jews in all thy domains. 6 How can I bear to see my own people exterminated by massacre? 7 Nay, said the king to Esther and Mardochaeus; Aman’s house I have granted to Esther, and Aman himself I have sent to the gallows, for daring to lift his hand against the Jews. 8 But letters sent in the king’s name and signed with his ring, by the custom of the realm, none must ever revoke. Write rather in my name, under the royal seal, orders for the Jewish people to obey, in whatever sense likes you best.||1 Die illo dedit rex Assuerus Esther reginæ domum Aman adversarii Judæorum, et Mardochæus ingressus est ante faciem regis. Confessa est enim ei Esther quod esset patruus suus. 2 Tulitque rex annulum, quem ab Aman recipi jusserat, et tradidit Mardochæo. Esther autem constituit Mardochæum super domum suam. 3 Nec his contenta, procidit ad pedes regis, flevitque, et locuta ad eum oravit ut malitiam Aman Agagitæ, et machinationes ejus pessimas quas excogitaverat contra Judæos, juberet irritas fieri. 4 At ille ex more sceptrum aureum protendit manu, quo signum clementiæ monstrabatur: illaque consurgens stetit ante eum, 5 et ait: Si placet regi, et si inveni gratiam in oculis ejus, et deprecatio mea non ei videtur esse contraria, obsecro ut novis epistolis, veteres Aman litteræ, insidiatoris et hostis Judæorum, quibus eos in cunctis regis provinciis perire præceperat, corrigantur. 6 Quomodo enim potero sustinere necem et interfectionem populi mei? 7 Responditque rex Assuerus Esther reginæ, et Mardochæo Judæo: Domum Aman concessi Esther, et ipsum jussi affigi cruci, quia ausus est manum mittere in Judæos. 8 Scribite ergo Judæis, sicut vobis placet, regis nomine, signantes litteras annulo meo. Hæc enim consuetudo erat, ut epistolis, quæ ex regis nomine mittebantur et illius annulo signatæ erant, nemo auderet contradicere.|
|9 ἐκλήθησαν δὲ οἱ γραμματεῖς ἐν τῷ πρώτῳ μηνί ὅς ἐστι Νισα τρίτῃ καὶ εἰκάδι τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἔτους καὶ ἐγράφη τοῖς Ιουδαίοις ὅσα ἐνετείλατο τοῖς οἰκονόμοις καὶ τοῖς ἄρχουσιν τῶν σατραπῶν ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰνδικῆς ἕως τῆς Αἰθιοπίας ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι ἑπτὰ σατραπείαις κατὰ χώραν καὶ χώραν κατὰ τὴν ἑαυτῶν λέξιν 10 ἐγράφη δὲ διὰ τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ ἐσφραγίσθη τῷ δακτυλίῳ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐξαπέστειλαν τὰ γράμματα διὰ βιβλιαφόρων 11 ὡς ἐπέταξεν αὐτοῖς χρῆσθαι τοῖς νόμοις αὐτῶν ἐν πάσῃ πόλει βοηθῆσαί τε αὑτοῖς καὶ χρῆσθαι τοῖς ἀντιδίκοις αὐτῶν καὶ τοῖς ἀντικειμένοις αὐτῶν ὡς βούλονται 12 ἐν ἡμέρᾳ μιᾷ ἐν πάσῃ τῇ βασιλείᾳ Ἀρταξέρξου τῇ τρισκαιδεκάτῃ τοῦ δωδεκάτου μηνός ὅς ἐστιν Αδαρ 13 τὰ δὲ ἀντίγραφα ἐκτιθέσθωσαν ὀφθαλμοφανῶς ἐν πάσῃ τῇ βασιλείᾳ ἑτοίμους τε εἶναι πάντας τοὺς Ιουδαίους εἰς ταύτην τὴν ἡμέραν πολεμῆσαι αὐτῶν τοὺς ὑπεναντίους 14 οἱ μὲν οὖν ἱππεῖς ἐξῆλθον σπεύδοντες τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως λεγόμενα ἐπιτελεῖν ἐξετέθη δὲ τὸ πρόσταγμα καὶ ἐν Σούσοις||9 So, on the twenty-third day of the third month, Siban, they summoned notary and scribe of the royal household, and at Mardochaeus’ bidding they issued orders to the Jewish people. Letters were sent to all the chieftains, governors and judges who ruled the hundred and twenty-seven provinces between India and Ethiopia, written to each province or tribe in the characters it used and in the language it spoke; to the Jews, in their own characters and their own language. 10 And these letters, written under the royal seal in the king’s name, were sent out by post-boys, that must carry them from province to province before the earlier decree could be executed. 11 City by city the Jews must be brought together, so that they could muster their whole number and fight for their lives. They might slay their enemies till they made an end of them, with their wives and children and all their households, and divide their goods as plunder. 12 The day fixed everywhere for this act of retribution was the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, Adar …. 13 A copy of the letter warning the Jews everywhere in Assuerus’ empire, to be prepared for vengeance …. 14 Swiftly the post-boys went about their errand, and in Susan the royal edict was hung up for all to see.||9 Accitisque scribis et librariis regis (erat autem tempus tertii mensis, qui appellatur Siban) vigesima et tertia die illius scriptæ sunt epistolæ, ut Mardochæus voluerat, ad Judæos, et ad principes, procuratoresque et judices, qui centum viginti septem provinciis ab India usque ad Æthiopiam præsidebant: provinciæ atque provinciæ, populo et populo juxta linguas et litteras suas, et Judæis, prout legere poterant et audire. 10 Ipsæque epistolæ, quæ regis nomine mittebantur, annulo ipsius obsignatæ sunt, et missæ per veredarios: qui per omnes provincias discurrentes, veteres litteras novis nuntiis prævenirent. 11 Quibus imperavit rex, ut convenirent Judæos per singulas civitates, et in unum præciperent congregari ut starent pro animabus suis, et omnes inimicos suos cum conjugibus ac liberis et universis domibus, interficerent atque delerent, et spolia eorum diriperent. 12 Et constituta est per omnes provincias una ultionis dies, id est tertiadecima mensis duodecimi Adar. 13 Summaque epistolæ hæc fuit, ut in omnibus terris ac populis qui regis Assueri subjacebant imperio, notum fieret paratos esse Judæos ad capiendam vindictam de hostibus suis. 14 Egressique sunt veredarii celeres nuntia perferentes, et edictum regis pependit in Susan.|
|15 ὁ δὲ Μαρδοχαῖος ἐξῆλθεν ἐστολισμένος τὴν βασιλικὴν στολὴν καὶ στέφανον ἔχων χρυσοῦν καὶ διάδημα βύσσινον πορφυροῦν ἰδόντες δὲ οἱ ἐν Σούσοις ἐχάρησαν 16 τοῖς δὲ Ιουδαίοις ἐγένετο φῶς καὶ εὐφροσύνη||15 When Mardochaeus came out from his audience with the king, resplendent in royal robes of violet and white, a gold crown on his head, his cloak of purple and lawn, the whole city welcomed him with rejoicing and applause; 16 for the Jews, it was a dawn of new hope, a day of gladness and triumphant glory.||15 Mardochæus autem de palatio et de conspectu regis egrediens, fulgebat vestibus regiis, hyacinthinis videlicet et æriis, coronam auream portans in capite, et amictus serico pallio atque purpureo. Omnisque civitas exultavit atque lætata est. 16 Judæis autem nova lux oriri visa est, gaudium, honor, et tripudium.|
|17 κατὰ πόλιν καὶ χώραν οὗ ἂν ἐξετέθη τὸ πρόσταγμα οὗ ἂν ἐξετέθη τὸ ἔκθεμα χαρὰ καὶ εὐφροσύνη τοῖς Ιουδαίοις κώθων καὶ εὐφροσύνη καὶ πολλοὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν περιετέμοντο καὶ ιουδάιζον διὰ τὸν φόβον τῶν Ιουδαίων||17 As each tribe, city and province received the royal letter, there was feasting and carousal and holiday; and many there were, of alien race and alien creed, that submitted themselves to Jewish rite and observance; such terror the name of Jewry struck into their hearts.||17 Apud omnes populos, urbes, atque provincias, quocumque regis jussa veniebant, mira exultatio, epulæ atque convivia, et festus dies: in tantum ut plures alterius gentis et sectæ eorum religioni et cæremoniis jungerentur. Grandis enim cunctos judaici nominis terror invaserat.|
 The Greek and Latin versions have ‘withstand’ instead of ‘revoke’ (the same Hebrew word is used here as in verse 5). This obscures what seems to be the point of the whole passage. Although Aman is dead, the royal edict sent out by him cannot, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, be revoked (1.19 above). Assuerus is in the same difficulty as Darius in Daniel 6.15. He therefore tells Mardochaeus and Esther, not to rescind the existing decree, but to frame another, addressed to the Jews, which will have the effect of thwarting it. Their letter calls on the Jews to arm against the Gentiles, as Aman’s decree had, in effect, called on the Gentiles to arm against the Jews (3.13). While, therefore, the action of the Jews on the thirteenth of Adar can be represented as an act of vengeance (verses 12 and 13), it also was an act of self-defence (verse 11); if they had not armed, their enemies would have instituted a successful pogrom under the (still unrepealed) edict of Aman.
 See note on 3.14, and also that on 16.1.
Knox Translation Copyright © 2013 Westminster Diocese
Nihil Obstat. Father Anton Cowan, Censor.
Imprimatur. +Most Rev. Vincent Nichols, Archbishop of Westminster. 8th January 2012.
Re-typeset and published in 2012 by Baronius Press Ltd