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La Chaise, François d'Aix de - Confessor of King Louis XIV, born at the mansion of Aix, in Forez, Department of Loire, 25 August, 1624; died at Paris, 20 January, 1709
La Crosse - Diocese erected in 1868; included that part of the State of Wisconsin, U.S.A., lying north and west of the Wisconsin River
La Richardie, Armand de - Born at Perigueux, 7 June, 1686; died at Quebec, 17 March, 1758. He entered the Society of Jesus at Bordeaux, 4 Oct., 1703, and in 1725 was sent to the Canada mission
La Roche Daillon, Joseph de - Recollect, one of the most zealous missionaries of the Huron tribe, d. in France, 1656
La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, The Duke of - Opposed during the last years of the reign of Louis XV to the government of Maupeou, and the friend of all the reformers who surrounded Louis XVI, he owed to the influence of these economists the favour of the king
La Rochejacquelein, Henri-Auguste-Georges du Vergier, Comte de - French politician, b. at the chateau of Citran (Fironde), on 28 September, 1805; d. on 7 January, 1867
La Rochelle - The Diocese of La Rochelle (Rupellensis), suffragan of Bordeaux, comprises the entire Department of Charente-Inferieure
Larrey, Dominique-Jean - Baron, French military surgeon, b. at Baudean, Hautes-Pyrenees, July, 1766; d. at Lyons, 25 July, 1842
La Rue, Charles de - French Jesuit orator (1643-1725)
La Salette - Located in the commune and parish of La Salette-Fallavaux, Canton of Corps, Department of Isere, and Diocese of Grenoble
La Salette, Missionaries of - Founded in 1852, at the shrine of Our Lady of La Salette, where some priests banded together to care for the numerous pilgrims frequenting the mountain
La Salle, John Baptist de, Saint - Essay on the founder of the Christian Brothers
La Salle, René-Robert-Cavelier, Sieur de - Explorer, born at Rouen, 1643; died in Texas, 1687
La Serena, Diocese of - Embracing Atacama and Coquimbo provinces (Chile), suffragan of Santiago, erected 1 July, 1840
La Verna - An isolated mountain hallowed by association with St. Francis of Assisi, situated in the centre of the Tuscan Appenines
Labadists - A pietist sect of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries founded by Jean de Labadie, who was born at Bourg, near Bordeaux, 13 February, 1610, and died at Altonia, 13 February, 1674
Laban - Son of Bathuel, the Syrian
Labarum (Chi-Rho) - The name by which the military standard adopted by Constantine the Great after his celebrated vision (Lactantius, 'De mortibus persecutorum', 44), was known in antiquity
Labat, Jean-Baptiste - Dominican missionary, born at Paris, 1664; died there, 1738
Labbe, Philippe - Born at Borges, 10 July, 1607; died at Paris, at the College of Clermont, 17 (16) March, 1667; a distinguished Jesuit writer on historical, geographical, and philological questions
Labour and Labour Legislation - Labour is work done by mind or body either partly or wholly for the purpose of producing utilities
Labour Unions, Moral Aspects of - Since a labour union is a society, its moral aspects are determined by its constitution, its end, its results, and the means employed in pursuit of the end
La Bruyère, Jean de - Born at Paris in 1645; died at Chantilly in 1696. He was the son of a comptroller general of municipal revenue
Labyrinth - A complicated arrangement of paths and passages; or a place, usually subterraneous, full of windings, corridors, rooms, etc., so intricately arranged as to render the getting out of it a very difficult matter
Lac, Stanislaus du - Jesuit educationist and social work, b. at Paris, 21 November, 1835; d. there, 30 August, 1909
Lace - The two earliest known specimens of lace-worked linen albs are that of St. Francis, preserved at St. Clare's convent, Assisi, and the alb of Pope Boniface VIII, now in the treasury of the Sistine Chapel
Lacedonia, Diocese of - Located in the province of Avellino, Southern Italy
Lacordaire, Jean-Baptiste-Henri-Dominique - Dominican orator (1802-1861)
Lactantius, Lucius Cæcilius Firmianus - Fourth-century Christian apologist
Lacy, Blessed William - English widower, became a priest. He was martyred at York in 1582
Laderchi, James - An Italian Oratorian and ecclesiastical historian, born about 1678, at Faenza near Ravenna; died 25 April, 1738, at Rome
Ladislaus, Saint - King of Hungary, d. 1095
Laennec, René-Théophile-Hyacinthe - Born at Quimper, in Brittany, France, 17 February, 1781; died at Kerlouanec, 13 August, 1826, a French physician, discoverer of auscultation, and father of modern knowledge of pulmonary diseases
Laetare Sunday - The fourth, or middle, Sunday of Lent, so called from the first words of the Introit at Mass
Laetus, Pomponius - Humanist, b. in Calabria in 1425; d. at Rome in 1497
La Fayette, Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, Comtesse de - Author of memoirs and novels, born in Paris, 1634; died there, 1693
LaFarge, John - Painter, decorator, and writer (1835-1910)
Lafitau, Joseph-Françs - Jesuit missionary and writer, born at Bordeaux, France, 1 January, 1681; died there, 1746
Laflèche, Louis-François Richer - French-Canadian bishop, b. 4 Sept., 1818, at Ste-Anne de la Perade, Province of Quebec; d. 14 July, 1898
La Fontaine, Jean de - French poet, b. at Chateau-Thierry, 8 July, 1621; d. at Paris, 13 April, 1695
Laforêt, Nicholas-Joseph - Belgian philosopher and theologian, born at Graide, 23 January, 1823; died at Louvain, 26 January, 1872
La Fosse, Charles de - Painter, b. in Paris, 15 June, 1636; d. in Paris, 13 December, 1716, and buried in the church of Saint Eustache
Lafuente y Zamalloa, Modesto - Spanish critic and historian, d. 1866
Lagania - A titular see in Galatia Prima
Lagrené, Pierre - A missionary in New France, b. at Paris, 12 Nov (al. 28 Oct.), 1659; d. at Quebec in 1736
La Harpe, Jean-François - A French critic and poet, b. at Paris, 20 November, 1739; d. February, 1803
La Haye, Jean de - Franciscan Biblical scholar, b. at Paris, 20 March, 1593; d. there 15 Oct., 1661
La Hire, Philippe de - Mathematician, astronomer, physicist, naturalist, and painter, b. in Paris, 18 March, 1640; d. in Paris, 21 April, 1718
Lahore - Diocese in northern India, part of the ecclesiastical Province of Agra
Laibach - Austrian bishopric and suffragan of Goerz, embraces the territory of the Austrian crown-land of Carniola (Krain)
Laicization - The term laity signifies the aggregation of those Christians who do not form part of the clergy. Consequently the word lay does not strictly connote any idea of hostility towards the clergy or the Church much less towards religion. Laicization, therefore, considered etymologically, simply means the reducing of persons or things having an ecclesiastical character to a lay condition
Lainez, James - Second general of the Society of Jesus, theologian, b. in 1512, at Almazan, Castille, in 1512; d. at Rome, 19 January, 1565
Laity - The body of the faithful, outside of the ranks of the clergy
Lake Indians - A small tribe of Salishan stock, originally ranging along Columbia River in northeast Washington from about Kettle Falls to the British line
Lalemant, Charles - Born at Paris, 17 November, 1587; died there, 18 November, 1674. He was the first superior of the Jesuit missions in Canada, and his letter to his brother dated 1 August, 1626, inaugurated the series of 'Relations' about the missionary work in that country
Lalemant, Gabriel - Short biography of this Jesuit missionary
Lalemant, Jerome - Jesuit missionary, b. at Paris, 27 April, 1593, d. at Quebec, 16 November, 1665
Lallemant, Jacques-Philippe - French Jesuit, b. at St-Valery-sur-Somme about 1660; d. at Paris 1748
Lallemant, Louis - French Jesuit, b. at Chalons-sur-Marne, 1588; d. at Bourges, 5 April, 1635
Lalor, Teresa - Co-foundress, with Bishop Neale of Baltimore, of the Visitation Order in the United States, b. in Ireland; d. 9 Sept., 1846
La Luzerne, César-Guillaume - French cardinal b. at Paris, 1738; d. there, 1821
Lamarck, Chevalier de - Distinguished botanist, zoologist, and natural philosopher, b. at Bazentin in Picardy (department of Somme), France, 1 August, 1744; d. at Paris, 18 December, 1829
Lamartine, Alphonse de - Poet, b. at Macon Saone-et-Loire, France, 21 Oct., 1790; d. at Paris, l March, 1869
Lamb, Paschal - A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the Passover celebration
Lamb (in Early Christian Symbolism) - One of the few Christian symbols dating from the first century is that of the Good Shepherd carrying on His shoulders a lamb or a sheep, with two other sheep at his side
Lambeck, Peter - Historian and librarian, b. at Hamburg, 13 April 1628; d. at Vienna, 4 April, 1680
Lambert, Saint - Bishop of Maestricht, martyred between 698 and 701 for defending the sanctity of marriage. Also called St. Landebertus
Lambert, Louis A. - Priest and journalist (1835-1910)
Lambert Le Bègue - Priest and reformer, lived at Liege, Belgium, about the middle of the twelfth century
Lambert of Hersfeld - A medieval historian; b. in Franconia or Thuringia, c. 1024; d. after 1077
Lambert of St-Bertin - Benedictine chronicler and abbot, b. about 1060; d. 22 June, 1125, at St-Bertin, France
Lamberville, Jacques and Jean de - Seventeenth-century Jesuit missionaries
Lambillotte, Louis - Belgian Jesuit and composer (1796-1855)
Lambin, Denis - French philologist (1520-1572)
Lambruschini, Luigi - Cardinal, b. at Sestri Levante, near Genoa, 6 March, 1776, d. at Rome, 12 May, 1854
Lambton, Ven. Joseph - Yorkshire man, a priest, martyred at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1592
Lamego - Diocese situated in the district of Vizeu, province of Beira, Portugal
Lamennais, Félicité Robert de - Born at Saint-Malo, 29 June, 1782; died at Paris, 27 February, 1854
Lamennais, Jean-Marie-Robert de - French priest, brother of Felicite Robert de Lamennais, b. at St-Malo in 1780; d. at Ploërmel, Brittany, in 1860
Lamoignon, Family of - Illustrious in the history of the old magistracy, originally from Nivernais
Lamont, Johann von - Astronomer and physicist, b. 13 Dec., 1805, at Braemar in Scotland, near Balmoral Castle; d. 6 Aug., 1879, at Bogenhausen near Munich, Bavaria
La Moricière, Louis-Christophe-Leon Juchault de - French general and commander-in-chief of the papal army, b. at Nantes, 5 February, 1806; d. at the chateau of Prouzel, near Amiens, 11 September, 1865
Lamormaini, Wilhelm - Confessor of Emperor Ferdinand II, b. 29 December, 1570, at Dochamps, Luxemburg; d. at Vienna, 22 February, 1648
Lampa - A titular see in Crete, suffragan of Gortyna, was probably a colony of Tarrha
Lamp, Altar - In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should always burn in the Tabernacle of the Testimony without the veil
Lamp and Lampadarii - There is very little evidence that any strictly liturgical use was made of lamps in the early centuries of Christianity. The fact that many of the services took place at night, and that after the lapse of a generation or two the meetings of the Christians for purposes of worship were held, at Rome and elsewhere, in the subterranean chambers of the Catacombs, make it clear that lamps must have been used to provide the necessary means of illumination
Lamprecht - German poet of the twelfth century, of whom practically nothing personal is known but his name and the fact that he was a cleric
Lamps, Early Christian - Of the various classes of remains from Christian antiquity there is probably none so numerously represented as that of small clay lamps adorned with Christian symbols
Lampsacus - A titular see of Hellespont, suffragan of Cyzicus
Lamuel - Name of a king mentioned in Prov., xxxi, 1 and 4, but otherwise unknown
Lamus - A titular see of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia
Lamy, Bernard - Oratorian, b. at Le Mans, France, in June, 1640; d. at Rouen, 29 Jan., 1715
Lamy, François - An ascetical and apologetic writer of the Congregation of St-Maur, b. in 1636 at Montireau in the Department of Eure-et-Loir; d. 11 April, 1711, at the Abbey of St-Denis near Paris
Lamy, Thomas Joseph - Biblical scholar end orientalist, b. at Ohey, in Belgium, 27 Jan., 1827, d. at Louvain, 30 July, 1907
Lana, Francesco - Born 10 Dec., 1631, at Brescia in Italy; died in the same place, 22 Feb., 1687. Mathematician and naturalist, he was also the scientific founder of aeronautics
Lance, The Holy - In the Gospel of St. John (xix, 34), that, after our Saviour's death, 'one of the soldiers with a spear [lancea] opened his side and immediately there came out blood and water'
Lancelotti, Giovanni Paolo - Canonist, b. at Perugia in 1522; d. there, 23 September, 1590
Lanciano and Ortona - Lanciano is a small city in the province of Chieti, in the Abruzzi, Central Italy, between the Pescara and the Trigni, with a majestic view of Mount Maiella
Land-Tenure in the Christian Era - The way in which land has been held or owned during the nineteen hundred years which have seen in Europe the rise and establishment of the Church is a matter for historical inquiry. Strictly speaking, the way in which such ownership or tenure was not only legally arranged, but ethically regarded, is a matter for historical inquiry also
Lando, Pope - Reigned 913-914
Landriot, Jean-François-Anne - French bishop, b. at Couches-les-Mines near Autun, 1816, d. at Reims, 1874
Lanfranc - Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Pavia c. 1005; d. at Canterbury, 24 May, 1089
Lanfranco, Giovanni - Decorative painter, b. at Parma, 1581, d. in Rome, 1647
Lang, Matthew - Cardinal, Bishop of Gurk and Archbishop of Salzburg, b. at Augsburg in 1468; d. at Salzburg, 30 March, 1540
Langen, Rudolph von - Humanist and divine, b. at the village of Everswinkel, near Munster, Westphalia, 1438 or 1439; d. at Munster, 25 Dec., 1519
Langénieux, Benoit-Marie - Cardinal, Archbishop of Reims, b. at Villefranche-sur-Saone, Department of Rhone, 1824; d. at Reims, 1 Jan., 1905
Langham, Simon - Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England, b. at Langham in Rutland; d. at Avignon, France, 22 July, 1376
Langheim - A celebrated Cistercian abbey situated in Upper Franconia (Bavaria), not far from Mein, in the Diocese of Bamberg
Langhorne, Ven. Richard - Married Englishman, lawyer, martyred in 1679
Langley, Richard - Biographical portrait of the Yorkshire layman who refused to compromise his faith, and who paid the price for it. He was martyred in 1586
Langres - Diocese comprising the Department of the Haute-Marne
Lanigan, John - Irish Church historian (1758-1825)
Lanspergius - Carthusian monk and ascetical writer, b. at Landsberg in Bavaria 1489, d. at Cologne, 11 Aug., 1539
Lantern - In Italian or modern architecture, a small structure on the top of a dome, for the purpose of admitting light, for promoting ventilation, and for ornament
Lanterns, Altar - Used in churches to protect the altar candles and lamp, if the latter for any reason, such as a draught, cannot be kept lit
Lanzi, Luigi - An Italian archeologist, b. at Mont Olmo, near Macerata, in 1732; d. at Florence in 1810
Laodicea - A titular see, of Asia Minor, metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana, said to have been originally called Diospolis and Rhoas; Antiochus II colonized it between 261 and 246 B.C., and gave it the name of his wife, Laodice
Laos - Separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Siam by a decree of 4 May, 1899
La Paz - Diocese in Bolivia
Laplace, Pierre-Simon - Mathematician and astronomer (1749-1827)
Lapland and Lapps - This singular race is divided into three different groups: mountain, forest, and fisher Lapps
La Plata - The city of La Plata, capital of the Argentine Province of Buenos Aires, is situated on the right bank of the Rio de la Plata, about 35 miles south-east of the city of Buenos Aires
La Plata - The metropolitan see of Bolivia
Lapparent, Albert Auguste de - French geologist, b. at Bourges, 30 Dec., 1839; d. at Paris, 12 May, 1908
Laprade, Victor de - French poet and critic, b. at Montbrison in 1812; d. at Lyons in 1883
Lapsi - The regular designation in the third century for Christians who relapsed into heathenism, especially for those who during the persecutions displayed weakness in the face of torture, and denied the Faith by sacrificing to the heathen gods or by any other acts
Lapuente, Venerable Luis de - Born at Valladolid, 11 November, 1554; died there, 16 February 1624. Having entered the Society of Jesus, he studied under the celebrated Suarez, and professed philosophy at Salamanca
Laranda - A titular see of Isauria, afterwards of Lycaonia
Lares - Formerly a titular archiepiscopal see in proconsular Africa
Larino - Diocese in the province of Capmobasso, Southern Italy
Larissa - The seat of a titular archbishopric of Thessaly
Larke, Blessed John - Parish priest and friend of St. Thomas More. Martyred at Tyburn in 1543 or 1544, along with another priest (Bl. John Ireland) and the layman Bl. German Gardiner
Larrey, Dominique-Jean - Baron, French military surgeon, b. at Baudean, Hautes-Pyrenees, July, 1766; d. at Lyons, 25 July, 1842
Larue, Charles de - He took the habit of St. Benedict in the Abbey of St. Faro at Meaux, and made his religious profession on 21 Nov., 1703
Lasaulx, Ernst von - Scholar and philosopher, born at Coblenz, 16 March, 1805; died at Munich, 9 May, 1861
Lascaris, Constantine - Greek scholar from Constantinople; born 1434; died at Messina in 1501
Lascaris, Janus - A noted Greek scholar, born about 1445; died at Rome in 1535
Laski, John - Archbishop of Gnesen and Primate of Poland, b. at Lask, 1456; d. at Gnesen, 19 May, 1531
Lassberg, Baron Joseph Maria Christoph von - A distinguished German antiquary, born at Donaueschingen, 10 April, 1770; died 15 March, 1855
Lassus, Orlandus de - Biography emphasizing his religious compositions
Last Judgment, The - To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the 'Day of the Lord' (Joel 3:4; Ezekiel 13:5; Isaiah 2:12), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment. In the New Testament the second Parusia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine
Last Supper, The - The Evangelists and critics generally agree that the Last Supper was on a Thursday, that Christ suffered and died on Friday, and that He arose from the dead on Sunday
Lataste, Marie - Born at Mimbaste near Dax, France, 21 February, 1822; died at Rennes, 10 May, 1847; was the youngest child of simple pious peasants
Latera, Flaminius Annibali de - Historian, born at Latera, near Viterbo, 23 November, 1733; died at Viterbo, 27 February, 1813
Lateran, Christian Museum of - Established by Pius IX in 1854, in the Palazzo del Laterano erected by Sixtus V on the part of the site of the ancient Lateran palace destroyed by fire in 1308. In 1843 the 'profane' Museum of the Lateran was founded by Gregory XVI, in whose pontificate also was mooted the idea of establishing a museum of Christian antiquities in the same edifice
Lateran, Saint John - This is the oldest, and ranks first among the four great 'patriarchal' basilicas of Rome
Lateran Councils - A series of five important councils held at Rome from the twelfth to the sixteen century
Lateran Council, First - It put a stop to the arbitrary conferring of ecclesiastical benefices by laymen, reestablished freedom of episcopal and abbatial elections, separated spiritual from temporal affairs, and ratified the principle that spiritual authority can emanate only from the Church; lastly it tacitly abolished the exorbitant claim of the emperors to interfere in papal elections
Lateran Council, Second - To efface the last vestiges of the schism, to condemn various errors and reform abuses among clergy and people Innocent, in the month of April, 1139, convoked, at the Lateran, the tenth ecumenical council
Lateran Council, Third - In September, 1178, the pope in agreement with an article of the Peace of Venice, convoked an ecumenical council at the Lateran for Lent of the following year and, with that object, sent legates to different countries
Lateran Council, Fourth - From the commencement of his reign Innocent III had purposed to assemble an ecumenical council, but only towards the end of his pontificate could he realize this project, by the Bull of 19 April, 1213. The assembly was to take place in November, 1215
Lateran Council, Fifth - Convoked, by the Bull of 18 July, 1511, to assemble 19 April, 1512, in the church of St. John Lateran
Lathrop, George Parsons - Poet, novelist (1851-1898)
Latin, Ecclesiastical - The Latin in the official textbooks of the Church (the Bible and the Liturgy), as well as in the works of those Christian writers of the West who have undertaken to expound or defend Christian beliefs
Latin Church - The Latin Church is simply that vast portion of the Catholic body which obeys the Latin patriarch, which submits to the pope, not only in papal, but also in patriarchal matters
Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem - Founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed a first time by Saladin in 1187, it was re-established around Saint-Jean d'Acre and maintained until the capture of that city in 1291
Latin Literature in Christianity (Before the Sixth Century) - The Latin language was not at first the literary and official organ of the Christian Church in the West. The Gospel was announced by preachers whose language was Greek, and these continued to use Greek, if not in their discourses, at least in their most important acts
Latin Literature in Christianity (Sixth to Twentieth Century) - During the Middle Ages the so-called church Latin was to a great extent the language of poetry, and it was only on the advent of the Renaissance that classical Latin revived and flourished in the writings of the neo-Latinists as it does even today though to a more modest extent
Classical Latin Literature in the Church - This article deals only with the relations of the classical literature, chiefly Latin, to the Catholic Church
Latini, Brunetto - Florentine philosopher and statesman, born at Florence, c. 1210; the son of Buonaccorso Latini, died 1294
La Trappe - Abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians
Latreille, Pierre-André - A prominent French zoologist; born at Brives, 29 November, 1762; died in Paris, 6 February, 1833
Latria - In classical Greek originally meant 'the state of a hired servant' (Aesch., 'Prom.', 966), and so service generally. It is used especially for Divine service (Plato, 'Apol.', 23 B). In Christian literature it came to have a technical sense for the supreme honour due to His servants, the angels and saints
Latrocinium - The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of Chalcedon, 451, and have thus been preserved. The remainder of the Acts are known only through a Syriac translation by a Monophysite monk, published from the British Museum MS. Addit. 14,530, written in the year 535
Latter-day Saints, The Church of Jesus Christ of - Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. This religious body had its origin during the early part of the nineteenth century. Joseph Smith, the founder and first president of the sect, was the son of a Vermont farmer, and was born in Sharon township, Windsor County, in that state, on 23 December, 1805
Lauda Sion - The opening words (used as a title of the sequence composed by St. Thomas Aquinas, about the year 1264, for the Mass of Corpus Christi
Lauds - Article on the canonical hour once known as Matins, then as Lauds, now as Morning Prayer. One of the two principal hours
Laura - The Greek word laura is employed by writers from the end of the fifth century to distinguish the monasteries of Palestine of the semi-eremitical type. The word signifies a narrow way or passage, and in later times the quarter of a town
Laurence O'Toole, Saint - Confessor, abbot, and the first Irish-born bishop of Dublin, d. 1180
Laurentie, Pierre-Sébastien - French publicist (1793-1876)
Lausanne and Geneva - Diocese in Switzerland, immediately subject to the Holy See
Lauzon, Jean de - Fourth governor of Canada, b. at Paris, 1583; d. there, 16 Feb., 1666
Lauzon, Pierre de - A noted missionary of New France in the eighteenth century, born at Poitiers, 26 September, 1687; died at Quebec, 5 September, 1742
Lavabo - The first word of that portion of Psalm 25 said by the celebrant at Mass while he washes his hands after the Offertory, from which word the whole ceremony is named
Laval, François de Montmorency - First bishop of Canada, b. at Montigny-sur-Avre, 30 April, 1623, of Hughes de Laval and Michelle de Pericard; d. at Quebec on 6 May, 1708
La Valette, Jean Parisot de - Forty-eighth Grand Master of the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem; b. in 1494; d. in Malta, 21 Aug., 1568
Laval University of Quebec - Founded in 1852 by the Seminary of Quebec; the royal charter granted to it by Queen Victoria was signed at Westminster, 8 December, 1852
Lavant - An Austrian bishopric in the southern part of Styria, suffragan of Salzburg
Laverdière, Charles-Honoré - French-Canadian historian, born Chateau-Richer, Province of Quebec, 1826; died at Quebec, 1873
Lavérendrye, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de - Discoverer of the Canadian West, born at Three Rivers, Quebec, 17 November, 1685; died at Montreal, 6 December, 1749
Laverlochère, Jean-Nicolas - Missionary, born at St. Georges d'Esperance, Grenoble, France, 6 December, 1812; died at Temiscaming, Canada, 4 October, 1884
Lavigerie, Charles-Martial-Allemand - French cardinal, b. at Huire near Bayonne, 13 Oct., 1825; d. at Algiers, 27 Nov., 1892
Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent - Chemist, philosopher, economist (1743-1794)
Law - By law in the widest sense is understood that exact guide, rule, or authoritative standard by which a being is moved to action or held back from it
Law, Canon - Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of the Christian organization and its members
Law, Cemeteries in - Includes information concerning the laws in the United States and Canada
Law, Civil (Influence of the Church on) - Christianity is essentially an ethical religion; and, although its moral principles were meant directly for the elevation of the individual, still they could not fail to exercise a powerful influence on such a public institution as law, the crystallized rule of human conduct
Law, Common - The term is of English origin and is used to describe the juridical principles and general rules regulating the possession, use and inheritance of property and the conduct of individuals, the origin of which is not definitely known, which have been observed since a remote period of antiquity, and which are based upon immemorial usages and the decisions of the law courts as distinct from the lex scripta; the latter consisting of imperial or kingly edicts or express acts of legislation
Law, Divine (Moral Aspect of) - That which is enacted by God and made known to man through revelation
Law, International - Defined to be 'the rules which determine the conduct of the general body of civilized states in their dealings with each other' (American and English Encycl. of Law)
Law, Mosaic - The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws, and decisions comprised in the last four books of the Pentateuch, and ascribed by Christian and Hebrew tradition to Moses
Law, Natural - In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, meaning the order which governs the activities of the material universe. Among the Roman jurists natural law designated those instincts and emotions common to man and the lower animals, such as the instinct of self-preservation and love of offspring
Law, Roman - This subject is briefly treated under the two heads of; I. Principles; II. History
Lawrence, Saint - Deacon, martyr, d. 258
Lawrence, Saint - Successor of St. Augustine of Canterbury as archbishop of that see, and died in 619
Lawrence Justinian, Saint - Bishop and first Patriarch of Venice. He died in 1456
Lawrence of Brindisi, Saint - An Italian Capuchin with a talent for languages, much in demand as a preacher, was chaplain of the Imperial army. Doctor of the Church. He died in 1619
Lawrence O'Toole, Saint - Confessor, abbot, and the first Irish-born bishop of Dublin, d. 1180
Laws, Penal - Treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries since the Reformation.
Lay Abbot - A name used to designate a layman on whom a king or someone in authority bestowed an abbey as a reward for services rendered
Lay Brothers - Religious occupied solely with manual labour and with the secular affairs of a monastery or friary
Lay Communion - Speaking generally, the expression 'lay communion' does not necessarily imply the idea of the Eucharist, but only the condition of a layman in communion with the Church
Lay Confession - This article does not deal with confession by laymen but with that made to laymen, for the purpose of obtaining the remission of sins by God
Lay Tithes - Ecclesiastical tithes, which in the course of time became alienated from the Church to lay proprietors
Laymann, Paul - A famous Jesuit moralist, b. in 1574 at Arzl, near Innsbruck; d. of the plague on 13 November, 1635, at Constance
Lazarites - A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul
Lazarus - The name of two persons in the N.T.; a character in one of Christ's parables, and the brother of Martha and Mary of Bethania
Lazarus of Bethany, Saint - Reputed first Bishop of Marseilles, died in the second half of the first century
Lazarus of Jerusalem, Order of Saint - The military order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem originated in a leper hospital founded in the twelfth century by the crusaders of the Latin Kingdom
Lead, Diocese of - Established on 6 August, 1902
League, The - From a religious point of view it aimed at supporting Catholicism in France politically at restoring the 'ancient franchises and liberties' against the royal power
League, German - Early in 1608 Duke Maximilian started negotiations with the spiritual electors and some of the Catholic states of the empire, with a view to the formation of a union of the Catholic states
League of the Cross - A Catholic total abstinence confraternity founded in London in 1873 by Cardinal Manning to unite Catholics, both clergy and laity, in the warfare against intemperance, and thus improve religious, social, and domestic conditions, especially among the working classes
Leander of Seville, Saint - Bishop, d. 601
Leavenworth - Suffragan to St. Louis, established, 22 May, 1877
Lebanon - So called from the snow which covers the highest peaks during almost the entire year, or from the limestone which glistens white in the distance
Lebedus - Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus
Le Blant, Edmond-Frederic - French archeologist and historian, born 12 August, 1818; died 5 July, 1897 at Paris
Lebrun, Charles - French historical painter, born in Paris, 1619; died at the Gobelin tapestry works, 1690
Lebwin, Saint - Also called Lebuinus or Liafwin. English-born missionary to the Frisians, died at Deventer around 770. Biography
Le Camus, Emile-Paul-Constant-Ange - Preacher, theologian, scripturist, Bishop of La Rochelle and Saintes, b. at Paraza, France, 24 August, 1839; d. at Malvisade, near Castelnaudary, France, 28 September, 1906
Le Camus, Etienne - French cardinal, b. at Paris, 1632; d. at Grenoble, 1707
Le Caron, Joseph - One of the four pioneer missionaries of Canada and first missionary to the Hurons, b. near Paris in 1586; d. in France, 29 March, 1632
Lecce - Diocese; suffragan of Otranto
Leclerc du Tremblay, François - A Capuchin, better known as Pere Joseph, b. in Paris, 4 Nov., 1577; d. at Rueil, 18 Dec., 1638
Leclercq, Chrestien - A Franciscan Recollet and one of the most zealous missionaries to the Micmac of Canada, also a distinguished historiographer of Nouvelle France
Lecoy de La Marche - French historian; b. at Nemours, 1839; d. at Paris, 1897
Le Coz, Claude - French bishop, b. at Plouevez-Parzay (Finistere), 1740; d. at Villevieux (Jura), 1813
Lectern - Support for a book, reading-desk, or bookstand, a solid and permanent structure upon which the Sacred Books, which were generally large and heavy, were placed when used by the ministers of the altar in liturgical functions
Lectionary - A term of somewhat vague significance, used with a good deal of latitude by liturgical writers
Lector - A lector (reader) in the West is a clerk having the second of the four minor orders. In all Eastern Churches also, readers are ordained to a minor order preparatory to the diaconate
Ledge, Altar - A step behind the altar, raised slightly above it, for candlesticks, flowers, reliquaries, and other ornaments
Ledochowski, Miecislas Halka - Polish cardinal (1822-1902)
Leeds - Diocese embracing the West Riding of Yorkshire, and that part of the city of York to the south of the River Ouse
Lefebvre, Camille - Apostle of the Acadians, b. at St. Philippe, P. Q., 1831; d. at St. Joseph, N. B., 1895
Lefèvre, Family of - A family engaged in tapestry weaving in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
Le Fèvre, Jacques - A French theologian and controversialist, b. at Lisieux towards the middle of the seventeenth century; d. 1 July, 1716, at Paris
Lefèvre de la Boderie, Guy - French Orientalist and poet; b. near Falaise in Normandy, 9 August, 1541; d. in 1598 in the house in which he was born
Lefèvre d'Etaples, Jacques - A French philosopher, biblical and patristic scholar; b. at Etaples in Picardy, about 1455; d. at Nerac, 1536
Legacies - In its most restricted sense, by a pious legacy or bequest (legatum pium) is understood, the assigning, by a last will, of a particular thing forming part of an estate, to a church or an ecclesiastical institution
Legate - In its broad signification, means that person who is sent by another for some representative office. In the ecclesiastical sense it means one whom the pope sends to sovereigns or governments or only to the members of the episcopate and faithful of a country, as his representative, to treat of church matters or even on a mission of honour
Legends, Literary or Profane - In the period of national origins history and legend are inextricably mingled. In the course of oral transmission historic narrative necessarily becomes more or less legendary
Legends of the Saints - The legenda are stories about the saints, and often include a mix of historical fact and unhistorical embellishments
Leghorn - City in Italy. Suffragan of Pisa
Legio - Titular see of Palestina Secunda
Legipont, Oliver - Benedictine bibliographer (1698-1758)
Legists - Teachers of civil or Roman law, who, besides expounding sources, explaining terms, elucidating texts, summarizing the contents of chapters, etc., illustrated by cases, real or imaginary, the numerous questions and distinctions arising out of the 'Corpus Juris' enactments of the ancient Roman code
Legitimation - The canonical term for the act by which the irregularity contracted by being born out of lawful wedlock is removed
Le Gobien, Charles - French Jesuit and founder of the famous collection of 'Lettres edifiantes et curieuses', one of the most important sources of information for the history of Catholic missions, b. at St-Malo, Brittany, 25 November, 1671; d. at Paris, 5 March, 1708
Legrand, Louis - French theologian and noted doctor of the Sorbonne, b. in Burgundy at Lusigny-sur-Ouche, 12 June, 1711, d. at Issy (Paris), 21 July, 1780
Le Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac - Founder of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, d. 1660
Le Hir, Arthur-Marie - Biblical scholar and Orientalist; b. at Morlaix (Finisterre), in the Diocese of Quimper, France, 5 Dec., 1811; d. at Paris, 13 Jan., 1868
Lehnin, Abbey of - Founded in 1180 by Otto II, Margrave of Brandenburg, for Cistercian monks
Leibniz, System of - A thorough overview of the life and views of Leibniz
Leigh, Venerable Richard - Article on this English priest and missionary to his native land, martyred in 1588
Leipzig - Chief town in the Kingdom of Saxony, situated at the junction of the Pleisse, Parthe, and Weisse Elster
Leipzig, University of - Next to Heidelberg, the oldest university in the German Empire
Leitmeritz - In Austria, embraces the northern part of the Kingdom of Bohemia
Lejeune, Jean - Born at Poligny in 1592; died at Limoges, 19 Aug., 1672; member of the Oratory of Jesus, founded by de Berulle in 1611
Lelong, Jacques - A French bibliographer, b. at Paris, 19 April, 1665 d. there, 13 Aug., 1721
Le Loutre, Louis-Joseph - A missionary to the Micmac Indians and Vicar-General of Acadia under the Bishop of Quebec, b. in France about 1690: d. there about 1770
Le Mans - Comprises the entire Department of Sarthe
Lemberg - Seat of a Latin, a Uniat Ruthenian, and a Uniat Armenian archbishopric
Lemcke, Henry - Missionary in the United States, b. at Rhena, Mecklenburg, 27 July, 1796; d. at Carrolltown, Pennsylvania, 29 November, 1882
Le Mercier, François - One of the early missionaries of New France, b. at Paris, 4 October, 1604; d. in the island of Martinique, 12 June, 1690
Lemercier, Jacques - Born at Pontoise, about 1585; died at Paris, 1654. Lemercier shares with Mansart and Le Muet the glory of representing French architecture most brilliantly under Louis XIII and Richelieu
Lemos, Thomas de - Spanish theologian and controversialist, b. at Rivadavia, Spain, 1555, d. at Rome 23 Aug., 1629
Le Moyne - The name of one of the most illustrious families of the New World, whose deeds adorn the pages of Canadian history
Le Moyne, Simon - A Jesuit missionary, b. at Beauvais, 1604; d. in 1665 at Cap de la Madeleine, near Three Rivers
L'Enfant, Pierre-Charles - French engineer (1755-1833)
Lennig, Adam Franz - Theologian, b. 3 Dec., 1803, at Mainz; d. there, 22 Nov., 1866
Lenormant, Charles - French archaeologist, b. in Paris, 1 June, 1802; d. at Athens, 24 November, 1859
Lenormant, François - Archaeologist; son of Charles Lenormant, b. at Paris, 17 January, 1837; d. there, 9 December, 1883
Le Nourry, Denis-Nicolas - Ecclesiastical writer, b. at Dieppe in Normandy, 18 Feb., 1647; d. at the Abbey of St-Germain in Paris, 24 March, 1724
Lent - An article on the origins of Lenten fasting
Lentulus, Publius - A fictitious person, said to have been Governor of Judea before Pontius
Leo I (the Great), Pope - Article on his pontificate, in Christian antiquity second only to that of Gregory the Great in importance. Leo died in 461
Leo II, Pope Saint - Biographical article on this pontiff, who died in 683
Leo III, Pope Saint - Biography of this pope, who died in 816
Leo IV, Pope - Biographical article on this Roman, who died in 855
Leo V, Pope - Very little is known of him. No certainty either as to when he was elected or as to exactly how long he reigned
Leo VI, Pope - The exact dates of the election and death of Leo VI are uncertain, but it is clear that he was pope during the latter half of 928
Leo VII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; d. 13 July, 939. A Roman and priest of St. Sixtus, and probably a Benedictine monk, he was elected pope 3 January, 936
Leo VIII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; d. between 20 February and 13 April, 965
Leo IX, Pope - Hagiographical article on this reformer pope, who died in 1054
Leo X, Pope - Reigned 1513-1521
Leo XI, Pope - Reigned 1605
Leo XII, Pope - Born at the Castello della Genga in the territory of Spoleto, 22 August, 1760; died in Rome, 10 February, 1829
Leo XIII, Pope - Lengthy biographical article on the author of 'Rerum novarum.'
Leo, Brother - Companion of St. Francis of Assisi (d. 1271)
Leocadia, Saint - Virgin and martyr, d. probably in 304
Leodegar, Saint - Bishop of Autun, martyred in 678. Also known as St. Leger
Leo Diaconus - Byzantine historian; b. at Kaloe, at the foot of Mount Tmolos, in Ionia, about the year 950; the year of his death is unknown
Leon - Provides history and geography of the area
León - Suffragan of Michoacan in Mexico, erected in 1863
León, Luis de - Spanish poet and theologian, b. at Belmonte, Aragon, in 1528; d. at Madrigal, 23 August, 1591
Leonard of Chios - Born at an uncertain date on the Island of Chios, then under Genoese domination; died in Chios or in Italy, 1842
Leonard of Limousin, Saint - According to eleventh-century legend, he was a sixth-century Frankish nobleman
Leonard of Port Maurice, Saint - Franciscan preacher and ascetic writer, d. 1751
Leonardo da Vinci - Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer and scholar (1452-1519)
Leonidas, Saint - The Roman Martyrology mentions at least six martyrs named Leonidas or Leonides, the most famous being St. Leonidas of Alexandria, the father of Origen
Leontius, Saint - Bishop of Frejus, d. 488. On good terms with Honoratus, who founded the famous monastery of Lerins, and with John Cassian and Pope St. Leo I
Leontius Byzantinus - An important theologian of the sixth century
Leontopolis - A titular archiepiscopal see of Augustamnica Secunda
Leopoldine Society, The - Established at Vienna for the purpose of aiding the Catholic missions in North America
Lepanto - Italian name for Naupactos (Naupactus) a titular metropolitan see of ancient Epirus
Leprosy - A chronic infectious disease characterized by the formation of growths in the skin, mucous membranes, peripheral nerves, bones, and internal viscera, producing various deformities and mutilations of the human body, and usually terminating in death
Leptis Magna - A titular see of Tripolitana
Le Puy - Diocese in France
Le Quien, Michel - French historian and theologian, b. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, department of Pas-de-Calais, 8 Oct., 1661; d. at Paris, 12 March, 1733
Lérida - Diocese; suffragan of Tarragona
Lérins, Abbey of - Situated on an island of the same name, now known as that of Saint-Honorat, about a league from the coast of Provence, in the Department of the Maritime Alps, now included in the Diocese of Nice, formerly in that of Grasse or of Antibes
Leros - Titular see of the Cyclades, suffragan of Rhodes
Leroy-Beaulieu, Anatole - French publicist (1842-1912)
Le Sage, Alain-René - Writer, b. at Sarzeau (Morbihan), 1668; d. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1747
Lesbi - A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Setif, in Algeria
Lescarbot, Marc - French lawyer, writer, and historian, b. at Vervins, between 1565 and 1570; d. about 1629
Lescot, Pierre - One of the greatest architects of France in the pure Renaissance style, b. at Paris about 1510; d. there, 1571
Lesina - Diocese in Dalmatia; includes the three islands of Hvar (Lesina), the ancient Pharia colonized by the Greeks in 385 B.C.; Brac, formerly Brattia or Brachia, also colonized by the Greeks; and Lissa, formerly Issa
Leslie, John - Bishop of Ross, Scotland, born 29 September, 1527, died at Guirtenburg, near Brussels 30 May, 1596
Lesbi - A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Setif, in Algeria
Lescarbot, Marc - French lawyer, writer, and historian, b. at Vervins, between 1565 and 1570; d. about 1629
Lescot, Pierre - One of the greatest architects of France in the pure Renaissance style, b. at Paris about 1510; d. there, 1571
Lessius, Leonard - A Flemish Jesuit and a theologian of high reputation, born at Brecht, in the province of Antwerp, 1 October, 1554; died at Louvain, 15 January, 1623
Lessons in the Liturgy - The reading of lessons from the Bible, Acts of Martyrs, or approved Fathers of the Church, forms an important element of Christian services in all rites since the beginning
Lestrange, Louis-Henri de - Born in 1754, in the Chateau de Colombier-le-Vieux, Ardeche, France; died at Lyons, 16 July, 1827
Lesueur, François Eustache - Jesuit missionary and philologist, of the Abnaki mission in Canada; born (according to notes given by Thwaites, apparently from official sources) near Coutances, Normandy, 22 July, 1685 or 1686, though Maurault gives his birthplace as Lunel, in Languedoc; died at Montreal, 28 or 26 April, 1760, or (according to Maurault) at Quebec, in 1755
Lesueur, Jean-François - Detailed biography emphasizing religious works of this composer, with links to related material
Lete - A titular see of Macedonia
Le Tellier, Charles-Maurice - Archbishop of Reims, b. at Turin, 1642; d. at Reims, 1710
Le Tellier, Michel - Born 16 October, 1643, of a peasant family, not at Vire as has so often been said, but at Vast near Cherbourg; died at La Fleche, 2 September, 1719
Letourneux, Nicolas - A well-known French preacher and ascetical writer of Jansenistic tendencies, born at Rouen, 30 April, 1640; died at Paris, 28 November, 1686
Letters, Ecclesiastical - Publications or announcements of the organs of ecclesiastical authority, e.g. the synods, more particularly, however, of popes and bishops, addressed to the faithful in the form of letters
Leubus - A celebrated ancient Cistercian abbey, situated on the Oder, northwest of Breslau, in the Prussian Province of Silesia
Leuce - A titular see of Thrace, not mentioned by any ancient historian or geographer
Levadoux, Michael - One of the first band of Sulpicians who, owing to the distressed state of religion in France, went to the United States and founded St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore; born at Clermont-Ferrand, in Auvergne, France, 1 April, 1746; died at Le-Puy-en-Velay, 13 Jan., 1815
Levau, Louis - A contemporary of Jacques Lemercier and the two Mansarts, and the chief architect of the first decade of Louis XIV's independent reign, born 1612; died at Paris, 10 Oct., 1670
Le Verrier, Urbain-Jean-Joseph - An astronomer and director of the observatory at Paris, born at Saint Lo, the ancient Briodurum later called Saint-Laudifanum, in northwestern France, 11 May, 1811; died at Paris, 25 September, 1877
Levites - The subordinate ministers appointed in the Mosaic Law for the service of the Tabernacle and of the Temple
Leviticus - The third book of the Pentateuch, so called because it treats of the offices, ministries, rites, and ceremonies of the priests and Levites
Lex - While official or private collections of Roman Law made under the Empire are called codices, e. g. 'Codex Theodosianus', probably because they were written on parchment sheets bound together in book form, the title lex was given to collections of Roman Law made by order of the barbarian kings for such of their subjects as followed that legislation
Lezana, Juan Bautista de - Theologian, born at Madrid, 23 Nov., 1586; died in Rome, 29 March, 1659
L'Hospital, Michael de - Born at Aigueperse, about 1504; d. at Courdimanche, 13 March, 1573. While very young he went to Italy to join his father, who had been a follower of the traitor, the Constable of Bourbon, in the camp of Charles V
Libel - A malicious publication by writing, printing, picture, effigy, sign, or otherwise than by mere speech, which exposes any living person, or the memory of any person deceased, to hatred, contempt, ridicule, or obloquy, or which causes or tends to cause any person to be ashamed or avoided, or which has a tendency to injure any person, corporation, or association of persons, in his, her, or its business or occupation
Libellatici, Libelli - The libelli were certificates issued to Christians of the third century
Liber Pontificalis - A history of the popes beginning with St. Peter and continued down to the fifteenth century, in the form of biographies
Liber Septimus - Three canonical collections of quite different value from a legal standpoint are known by this title
Libera Me - The responsory sung at funerals
Libera Nos - The first words of the Embolism of the Lord's Prayer in the Roman Rite
Liberal Arts, The Seven - Chiefly used during the Middle Ages. Doesn't mean arts as the word is understood today, but those branches of knowledge which were taught in the schools of that time
Liberalism - A free way of thinking and acting in private and public life
Liberatore, Matteo - A philosopher, theologian, and writer, born at Salerno, Italy, 14 August, 1810; died at Rome, 18 October, 1892
Liberatus of Carthage - Archdeacon author of an important history of the Nestorian and Monophysite troubles
Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum - A miscellaneous collection of ecclesiastical formularies used in the papal chancery until the eleventh century
Liberia - A republic on the west coast of Africa
Liberius, Pope - Reigned 352-366
Libermann, Ven. Francis Mary Paul - Founder of the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, which was afterwards merged in the Congregation of the Holy Ghost
Libraries - Collections of books accumulated and made accessible for public or private use
Libri Carolini - A work in four books (120 or 121 chapters), purporting to be the composition of Charlemagne, and written about 790-92
Lichfield - This diocese took its rise in the conversion of Mercia by St. Cedd and his three companions in 652 and subsequent years
Lidwina, Saint - Biography of this Dutch woman who died in 1433
Lieber, Ernst Maria - Born at Camberg in the Duchy of Nassau, 16 Nov., 1838; died 31 March, 1902
Lieber, Moriz - Politician and publicist, b. at the castle of Blankenheim in the Eifel, 1 Oct., 1790, d. at Kamberg, in Hesse-Nassau, 29 Dec., 1860
Liebermann, Bruno Franz Leopold - Catholic theologian, b., at Molsheim in Alsace 12 Oct., 1759; 4. at Strasburg, 11 Nov., 1844
Liège - The first capital of this diocese was Tongres, northeast of Liege; its territory originally belonged to the Diocese of Trier, then to Cologne; but after the first half of the fourth century Tongres received autonomous organization
Liesborn - A former noted Benedictine Abbey in Westphalia, Germany, founded in 815; suppressed in 1803
Liesborn, Master of - A Westphalian painter, who in 1465 executed an altar-piece of note in the Benedictine monastery of Liesborn, founded by Charlemagne
Liessies - A Benedictine monastery near Avesnes, in the Diocese of Cambrai, France (Nord), founded about the middle of eighth century and dedicated to St. Lambert
Life - The enigma of life is still one of the two or three most difficult problems that face both scientist and philosopher
Ligamen - The existing marriage tie which constitutes in canon law a public impediment to the contracting of a second marriage
Lights - Article concerned with the general aspects and in particular with the charge so often levelled against Catholicism of adopting wholesale the ceremonial practices of the pagan world
Ligugé - A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Poitiers, France, was founded about the year A.D. 360, by St. Martin of Tours
Liguori, Saint Alphonsus - Long biographical article on the founder of the Redemptorists and devotional writer
Lilienfeld - A Cistercian Abbey south of St. Polten, Lower Austria, founded in 1202 by Leopold the Glorious, Margrave of Austria, the first monks being supplied from the monastery of Heiligen Kreus near Vienna
Lilius, Aloisius - Principal author of the Gregorian Calendar, was a native of Cirò or Zirò in Calabria
Lille - The ancient capital of Flanders, now the chief town of the Departement du Nord in France
Lillooet Indians - An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, in southern British Columbia
Lima - Capital of Peru
Limbo - A word of Teutonic derivation, meaning literally 'hem' or 'border,' as of a garment, or anything joined on
Limbourg, Pol de - A French miniaturist. With his two brothers, he flourished at Paris at the end of the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth century
Limburg - Diocese in the Kingdom of Prussia, suffragan of Freiburg
Limerick - Diocese in Ireland; includes the greater part of the County of Limerick and a small portion of Clare
Limoges - Diocese comprising the Departments of Haute Vienne and Creuse in France
Limyra - A titular see of Lycia, and was a small city on the southern coast of Lycia, on the Limyrus, and twenty stadia from the mouth of this river
Linacre, Thomas - English physician and clergyman, founder of the Royal College of Physicians, London, b. at Canterbury about 1460; d. in London, 20 October, 1524
Linares - In 1777, at the request of Charles III of Spain, Pius VII erected the episcopal See of Linares as suffragan of the Archdiocese of Mexico
Lincoln - Suffragan of Dubuque, erected 2 August, 1887, to include that part of the State of Nebraska, U.S.A., south of the Platte River
Lincoln - This see was founded by St. Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 678, when he removed the Lindiswaras of Lincolnshire from the Diocese of Lindisfarne
Lindanus, William Damasus - Bishop of Ruremonde and of Ghent, b. at Dordrecht, in 1525; d. at Ghent, 2 November, 1588; he was the son of Damasus van der Lint
Linde, Justin Timotheus Balthasar, Freiherr von - Hessian jurist and stateman, b. in the village of Brilon, Westphalia, 7 Aug., 1797; d. at Bonn during the night of 8-9 June, 1870
Lindemann, Wilhelm - A Catholic historian of German literature, b. at Schonnebeck near Essen, 17 December, 1828; d. at Niederkruechten near Erkelenz (Rhine Province) 20 December, 1879
Lindisfarne, Ancient Diocese and Monastery of - The island of Lindisfarne lies some two miles off the Northumberland coast, nine and one-half miles southeast of the border-town of Berwick
Lindores, Benedictine Abbey of - On the River Tay, near Newburgh, Fifeshire, Scotland, founded by David, Earl of Huntingdon, younger brother of King William the Lion, about 1191
Line, Saint Anne - A convert to Catholicism, hanged in 1601 for the (unproven) crime of harboring a priest. She is one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales
Linens, Altar - The corporal, pall, purificator, and finger towels
Lingard, John - English priest and prominent historian
Linköping, Ancient See of - Located in Sweden; originally included Östergoetland, the Islands of Gotland and Öland, and Smaaland
Linoe - A titular see of Bithynia Secunda, known only from the 'Notitiae Episcopatuum' which mention it as late as the twelfth and thirteenth centuries as a suffragan of Nicaea
Linus, Pope Saint - Reigned about A.D. 64 or 67 to 76 or 79
Linz - Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Vienna
Lippe - One of the Confederate States of the German Empire
Lippi, Filippino - Italian painter, d. 1515. Artist's biography with bibliography
Lippi, Filippo - Biography of the Italian painter (1406-1469)
Lippomano, Luigi - A cardinal, hagiographer, b. in 1500; d. 15 August, 1559. Of a noble Venetian family, he devoted himself from his youth to the study of the classical languages and later to the pursuit of the sacred sciences
Lipsanotheca - A term sometimes used synonymously with reliquary, but signifying, more correctly, the little box containing the relics, which is placed inside the reliquary
Lipsius, Justus - Biographical article on the humanist by Paul Lejay
Lisbon - Patriarchate of Lisbon (Lisbonensis)
Lismore - The Diocese of Lismore extends over a territory of 21,000 squire miles in the nort-east of New South Wales (Australia)
Lismore, School of - Founded in the year 635 by St. Carthach the Younger
Lismore and Waterford - Suffragan of Cashel
Lister, Thomas - Jesuit writer, b. in Lancashire, about 1559; d. in England, probably before 1628; was the son of Christopher Lister, of Midhope, Yorks
Liszt, Franz - Article follows the pianist and composer's life and career, showing how his religious expression waned during his middle years, then increased toward the end of his life
Litany - A form of responsive prayer, used in public liturgical services and private devotions
Litany of Loreto - Long article examines the somewhat murky history of the Litany of Loreto. Also information on Marian litanies in general
Litany of the Holy Name - Does not give the text of the litany itself, but mentions many of the titles of Jesus Christ
Litany of the Saints - The model of all other litanies, of great antiquity
Literature, English - Latin, French, Italian, Greek, and Spanish literatures are a few of the influences
Lithuania - An ancient grandy-duchy united with Poland in the fourteenth century
Lithuanians in the United States - Includes information about immigration, religion, schools, and periodicals
Litta - A noble Milanese family which gave two distinguished cardinals to the Church
Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assissi - Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi, the name given to a classic collection of popular legends about the life of St. Francis of Assisi and his early companions as they appeared to the Italian people at the beginning of the fourteenth century
Little Office of Our Lady - Historical article on the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary, modeled on the Divine Office
Little Rock - The State of Arkansas and the Indian Territory, parts of the Louisiana Purchase, were formed, 1843, into the Diocese of Little Rock
Littré, Paul-Maximilien-Emile - A French lexicographer and philosopher; born at Paris, 1 February, 1801; died there, 2 June, 1881
Liturgical Books - All the books, published by the authority of any church, that contain the text and directions for her official (liturgical) services
Liturgical Chant - A chant, if its style, composition, and execution prove it suitable for liturgical use, may properly be called liturgical chant
Liturgy - A Greek composite word meaning originally a public duty, a service to the state undertaken by a citizen
Liturgy of the Hours - Brief essay on the historical development of the Liturgy of the Hours
Liturgy of Jerusalem - The Rite of Jerusalem is that of Antioch
Liutprand of Cremona - Bishop and historian, b. at the beginning of the tenth century; d. after 970
Liverpool - One of the thirteen dioceses into which Pius IX divided Catholic England, 29 September, 1850, when he re-established the Catholic hierarchy
Livias - A titular see in Palestina Prima, suffragan of Caesarea
Livorno - City in Italy. Suffragan of Pisa
Llancarvan - Llancarvan, Glamorganshire, Wales, was a college and monastery founded apparently about the middle of the fifth century
Llandaff - The origins of this see are to be found in the sixth century monastic movement initiated by St. Dubricius, who presided over the monastery of Mochros
Llanthony Priory - A monastery of Augustinian Canons, situated amongst the Black Mountains of South Wales, nine miles north-east of Abergavenny
Lloyd, Saint John - Welsh priest and martyr, executed at Cardiff in 1679. Article also has information on his fellow martyr the Jesuit Philip Evans
Loaisa, Garcia de - Cardinal and Archbishop of Seville, b. in Talavera, Spain, c. 1479; d. at Madrid, 21 April, 1546
Loango - Formerly included in the great Kingdom of Congo, Loango became independent towards the end of the sixteenth century, at which time it extended from the mouth of the Kwilou to that of the River Congo
Loaves of Proposition - Heb. 'bread of the faces', i.e. 'bread of the presence (of Yahweh)' (Ex., xxxv, 13; xxxix, 35, etc.), also called 'holy bread'
Lobbes, Benedictine Abbey of - Located in Hainault, Belgium, founded about 650, by St. Landelin, a converted brigand, so that the place where his crimes had been committed might benefit by his conversion
Lobera, Ann - Carmelite nun, companion of St. Teresa; b. At Medina del Campo (Old Castile), 25 November, 1545; d. at Brussels, 4 March, 1621
Loccum - A Cistercian abbey in the Diocese of Minden, formerly in Brunswick but now included in Hanover, was founded by Count Wilbrand von Hallermund in 1163
Lochleven - A lake in Kinross-shire, Scotland, an island of which, known as St. Serf's Island (eighty acres in extent), was the seat of a religious community for seven hundred years
Lochner, Stephen - A painter, born at Meersburg, on the Lake of Constance, date of birth unknown; died at Cologne, 1452
Loci Theologici - Loci theologici or loci communes, are the common topics of discussion in theology
Locke, Matthew - Article on the English composer includes his musical development, conversion, conflicts, and noted works
Lockhart, William - Son of the Rev. Alexander Lockhart of Waringham, Surry; b. 22 Aug., 1820; d. at St. Etheldreda's Priory, Eby Place, Holborn, London, 15 May, 1892
Lockwood, Venerable John - Short biographical article on the English priest and martyr
Lodi - A suffragan of Milan
Logia, Jesu - Found partly in the Inspired Books of the New Testament, partly in uninspired writings
Logic - A historical survey from Indian and Pre-Aristotelian philosophy to the Logic of John Stuart Mill
Logos, The - The word Logos is the term by which Christian theology in the Greek language designates the Word of God, or Second Person of the Blessed Trinity
Lohel, Johann - Archbishop of Prague, b. at Eger, Bohemia, 1549; d. 2 Nov., 1622
Lohner, Tobias - Professor of philosophy and speculative theology. Born 13 March, 1619, at Neuoetting in the Diocese of Salzburg; died 26 (probably) May, 1697
Loja, Diocese of - Suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, includes the greater part of the Provinces of Loja and El Oro
Lollards - The name given to the followers of John Wyclif, an heretical body numerous in England in the latter part of the fourteenth and the first half of the fifteenth century
Loman, Saint - Brief article accepts the tradition that Loman, bishop of Trim, was a nephew of St. Patrick
Lombard, Peter - Biobibliographical essay on the Master of the Sentences
Lombard, Peter - Archbishop (1555-1625)
Lombardy - A word derived from Longobardia and used during the Middle Ages to designate the country ruled over by the Longobards, which varied in extent with the varying fortunes of that race in Italy
Loménie de Brienne, Etienne-Charles de - French cardinal and statesman (1727-1794)
London (England) - The capital of England and chief city of the British Empire, is situated about fifty miles from the mouth of the Thames
London (Ontario) - Diocese in Canada, established 21 February, 1855; see transferred to Sandwich, 2 February, 1859, transferred back to London, 3 October, 1869
Longstreet, James - Soldier and Catholic convert. Born 8 January, 1821, at Edgefield, South Carolina, U.S.A.; died at Gainesville, Georgia, 2 January, 1904
Lope de Vega Carpio, Félix de - Poet and dramatist, b. at Madrid, 1562; d. 23 Aug., 1635
Lopez-Caro, Francisco - Spanish artist, b. at Seville in 1598; d. at Madrid in 1662; he was a pupil of Juan de Las Roelas, the painter of the great altar-piece in the church of St. Isidore in Seville, of the 'Martyrdom of St. Andrew' in the museum at Seville, and of the pictures in the university chapel
Lord's Prayer - Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase 'Lord's Prayer' does not seem to have been generally familiar in England before the Reformation. During the Middle Ages the 'Our Father' was always said in Latin, even by the uneducated. Hence it was then most commonly known as the Pater noster
Lorea - Titular see in Arabia
Lorenzana, Francisco Antonio de - Cardinal, b. 22 Sept., 1722 at Leon in Spain; d. 17 April, 1804, at Rome
Lorenzetti, Pietro and Ambrogio - Sienese painters. The time of their birth and death is not known
Lorenzo da Brindisi, Saint - An Italian Capuchin with a talent for languages, much in demand as a preacher, was chaplain of the Imperial army. Doctor of the Church. He died in 1619
Loreto, Holy House of - Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the 'Holy House' of Loreto has been numbered among the most famous shrines of Italy
Loreto, Litany of - Long article examines the somewhat murky history of the Litany of Loreto. Also information on Marian litanies in general
Lorette - An Indian village occupied by the principal remnant of the ancient Huron tribe on the east bank of Saint Charles River
Lorrain, Claude de - French painter and etcher, b. in 1600 at Chamagnc on the banks of the Moselle in Lorraine; d. in Rome, 21 Nov., 1681 (or 23 Nov., 1682)
Lorraine - By the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the empire of Charlemagne was divided in three parts: Ludwig the German received Eastern Franconia; Charles the Bald, Western Franconia; and Lothair I, the strip of land lying between the two and reaching from the North Sea to the Rhone, with Italy in addition. After the death of Lothair I, in 855, Italy passed to his son Lothair II, who gave his name to the district henceforth known as Lotharii Regnum - Lotharingen, Lothringen, or Lorraine
Lorsch Abbey - One of the most renowned monasteries of the old Franco-German Empire, is situated about ten miles east of Worms in the Grand Duch of Hesse, Germany
Loryma - A titular see of Caria, small fortified town and harbour on the coast of Caria
Los Angeles and Monterey - Comprises that part of the State of California which lies south of 37 deg. 5 min. N. lat. and covers an area of 80,000 square miles
Lossada, Luis de - Spanish philosopher (1681-1748)
Lossen, Karl August - German petrologist and geologist, born at Kreuznach (Rhine Province), 5 January, 1841; died at Berlin, 24 February, 1893
Lot - Nephew of Abraham
Lottery - A lottery is one of the aleatory contracts and is commonly defined as a distribution of prizes by lot or by chance
Lotti, Antonio - Biography of the Venetian composer noting his accomplishments as organist, teacher, and creator of operas and religious works
Lotto, Lorenzo - Italian portrait painter, d. 1556. Artist's biography with bibliography
Loucheux - The would-be Kuchin of some ethnologists, and the Tukudh of the Protestant missionaries; Richardson called them Quarrellers
Louis IX, Saint - Biographical article on St. Louis, King of France, d. 1270
Louis XIV - King of France, b. at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 16 September, 1638; d. at Versailles, 1 September, 1715; was the son of Louis XIII and Anne of Austria, and became king, upon the death of his father, 14 May 1643
Louis Allemand, Blessed - Brief article on this 15th-century Cardinal Archbishop of Arles, who was a supporter of antipope Felix V
Louis Bertrand, Saint - Spanish Dominican novicemaster and preacher, d. 1581
Louise, Sister - Educator and organizer, b. at Bergen-op-Zoom, Holland, 14 Nov., 1813; d. at Cincinnati, Ohio, 3 Dec., 1886
Louisiana - Includes history, religious information, and statistics
Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, Saint - Missionary to Brittany, d. 1716
Louis of Casoria, Venerable - Friar Minor and founder of the Frati Bigi (1814-1885)
Louis of Granada, Venerable - Spanish theologian, writer, and preacher (1505-1588)
Louis of Toulouse, Saint - Bishop, d. 1297
Louise de Marillac Le Gras, Venerable - Founder of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, d. 1660
Louisville, Diocese of - Comprises that part of Kentucky west of the Kentucky River and western borders of Carroll, Owen, Franklin, Woodford, Jessamine, Garrard, Rockcastle, Laurel, and Whitley Counties
Lourdes, Brothers of Our Lady of - A community devoted to the education of youth and the care of the sick and infirm. It was founded at Renaix, Flanders, in 1830, by Etienne Modeste Glorieux, a Belgian priest, and approved in 1892 by Leo XIII
Lourdes, Notre-Dame de - The pilgrimage of Lourdes is founded on the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin to a poor, fourteen-year-old girl, Bernadette Soubiroux. The first apparition occurred 11 February, 1858
Louvain, University of - In order to restore the splendour of Louvain, capital of his Duchy of Brabant, John IV of the House of Burgundy petitioned the papal authority for the establishment of an educational institution called at the time studium generale. The Bull of Martin V, dated 9 December, 1425, was the result
Love, Theological Virtue of - The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul (1 Cor., xiii, 13), usually called charity, defined: a divinely infused habit, inclining the human will to cherish God for his own sake above all things, and man for the sake of God
Low Church - The name given to one of the three parties or doctrinal tendencies that prevail in the Established Church of England and its daughter Churches, the correlatives being High Church and Broad Church
Lower California, Vicariate Apostolic of - Located in Mexico
Lower Criticism - The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work the autograph of which has been lost
Low Sunday - The first Sunday after Easter
Loyola, Saint Ignatius - Biography of the Spanish founder of the Jesuits, who died in 1556
Loyola University (Chicago) - The outgrowth of St. Ignatius College, founded by the Jesuits in 1869 for the higher education of the Catholic youth of Chicago, and empowered by the Legislature of Illinois (30 June, 1870) to confer the usual degrees in the various faculties of a university
Loyola University (New Orleans) - Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana, was (in 1912) the only Catholic university in what is popularly designated 'The Old South'
Lübeck - A free imperial state and one of the Hanse towns, is in area the second smallest and in population the twentieth state in the German Empire
Lublin - The city of Lublin is in Russian Poland, capital of the Government of Lublin, lies on the Bistrzyca, a tributary of the Vistula, and in 1897 had a population of 50,152, of whom 30,914 were Catholics
Luca, Giovanni Battista de - A Cardinal and Italian canonist of the seventeenth century, b. at Venusia, Southern Italy, in 1614; d. at Rome, on 5 February, 1683
Lucas, Frederick - A member of Parliament and journalist, b. in Westminster, 30 March, 1812, d. at Staines, Middlesex, 22 Oct., 1855
Lucca - The capital of the like named province in Tuscany, Central Italy
Lucera - An ancient city in the province of Foggia in Apulia, Southern Italy
Lucerne - Chief town of the Canton of Lucerne in Switzerland
Lucian of Antioch - Biographical article on the presbyter famed for his sanctity and scholarship, who died a martyr in 312
Lucic, John - Croatian historian, b. early in the seventeenth century, at Trojir, or Tragurion, in Dalmatia; d. at Rome, 11 January, 1679
Lucifer - The name Lucifer originally denotes the planet Venus, emphasizing its brilliance
Lucifer of Cagliari - A bishop, who must have been born in the early years of the fourth century; died in 371
Lucina, Crypt of - The traditional title of the most ancient section of the catacomb of St. Callistus
Lucius I, Pope Saint - Biographical article on this pope, exiled for a time, who reigned less than one year, and died in 254
Lucius II, Pope - Born at Bologna, unknown date, died at Rome, 15 February, 1145
Lucius III, Pope - Died 1185. Innocent II created him Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prassede on 23 February, 1141, and afterwards sent him as legate to France
Luçon - Embraces the Department of La Vendee
Lucy, Saint - Virgin and martyr, d. 303 in the Diocletian persecution
Ludger, Saint - Also known as St. Luediger, or Liudger. Biography of this missionary, the first bishop of Munster, who died in 809
Ludmilla, Saint - Bohemian duchess, grandmother of St. Wenceslaus. Strangled to death by assassins hired by her pagan daughter-in-law in 921
Ludolph of Saxony - An ecclesiastical writer of the fourteenth century, date of birth unknown; d. 13 April, 1378
Ludovicus a S. Carolo - Carmelite writer, b. at Chalons-sur-Marne (according to some at Chalon-sur-Saone), 20 Aug., 1608; d. at Paris 10 March, 1670
Lueger, Karl - A burgomaster of Vienna, Austrian political leader and municipal reformer, born at Vienna, 24 October, 1844; died there, 10 March, 1910
Lugo - Diocese in Galicia, Spain, a suffragan of Santiago, said to have been founded (by Agapitus) in Apostolic times
Lugo, Francisco de - Jesuit theologian, b. at Madrid, 1580; d, at Valladolid, 17 September, 1652
Lugo, John de - Spanish Jesuit and Cardinal, one of the most eminent theologians of modern times, b. at Madrid, November, 1583, though he used to call himself 'Hispalensis', because his family seat was at Seville; d. at Rome, 20 August, 1660
Lugos - Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Fogaras and Alba Julia of the Uniat-Rumanian Rite, was erected in November, 1853
Luini, Bernardino - Milanese painter, b. between 1470 and 1480; d. after 1530
Luke, Gospel of Saint - An introduction to the book
Lulé Indians - A name which has given rise to considerable confusion and dispute in Argentine ethnology, owing to the fact, now established, that it was applied at different times to two very different peoples, neither of which now exists under that name, while the vocabulary which could settle the affinity of the earlier tribe is now lost
Lully, Jean-Baptiste - Article profiles the composer's secular and religious contributions
Lully, Raymond - Biobibliographical article on Ramon Lull, who is called 'Doctor Illuminatus.'
Lumen Christi - The versicle chanted by the deacon on Holy Saturday as he lights the triple candle
Luminare - The name applied to the shafts in the roof of the passages and chambers of the Catacombs occasionally pierced for the admission of light and air
Lummi Indians - The principal one of more than twenty small Salishan tribes originally holding the lower shores, islands, and eastern hinterland of Puget Sound, Washington; by the Treaty of Point Elliott (1855), gathered upon five reservations within the same territory under the jurisdiction of Tulalip Agency
Lumper, Gottfried - Benedictine patristic writer, born 6 Feb., 1747, at Fuessen in Bavaria; died 8 March, 1800 (Hefele says 1801), at the Abbey of St. George at Billingen in the Black Forest
Luna, Pedro de - Antipope under the name of Benedict XIII, b. at Illueca, Aragon, 1328; d. at the Peniscola, near Valencia, Spain, either 29 Nov., 1422, or 23 May, 1423
Lund - Ancient Catholic diocese in the Laen of Malmoehus
Lunette - Known in Germany as the lunula and also as the melchisedech, is a crescent-shaped clip made of gold or of silver-gilt which is used for holding the Host in an upright position when exposed in the monstrance
Luni-Sarzana-Brugnato - Diocese in the province of Genoa
Lupus - Abbot of Ferrieres, French Benedictine writer, b. in the Diocese of Sens, about 805; d. about 862
Lupus, Christian - Historian, b. at Ypres (Flanders), 23 July, 1612; d. at Louvain, 10 July, 1681
Luscinius, Ottmar - An Alsatian Humanist, b. at Strasburg, 1487; d. at Freiburg, 1537
Lusignan, Jean-Baptiste-Alphonse - French-Canadian writer, b. at St-Denis on the Richelieu, P.Q., 27 September, 1843; d. 5 January, 1893, son of Jean-Baptiste Lusignan, a merchant, and Onesime Masse
Lussy, Melchior - Statesman, b. at Stans, Canton of Unterwalden, Switzerland, 1529; d. there 14 Nov., 1606
Lust - The inordinate craving for, or indulgence of, the carnal pleasure which is experienced in the human organs of generation
Luther, Martin - Leader of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century in Germany; born at Eisleben, 10 November, 1483; died at Eisleben, 18 February, 1546
Lutheranism - The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant sects, founded by the Wittenberg reformer, Martin Luther
Lütolf, Aloys - Church historian (1824-1879)
Lutzk, Zhitomir, and Kamenetz, Diocese of - Diocese located in Little Russia
Luxemburg - The small remnant of the old duchy of this name and since 11 May, 1867, an independent neutral grand duchy, comprising 998 sq. miles of territory, lying principally between 49°27' and 50°12' N. lat., and 5°45' and 6°32' E. long
Luxeuil Abbey - Situated in the Department of Haute-Saone in Franche-Comte, in the Diocese of Besancon
Lycopolis - A titular see in Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoë
Lydda - A titular see of Palestina Prima in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem
Lydgate, John - Writer, born at Lydgate, Suffolk, about 1370; d. probably about 1450. He entered the Benedictine abbey at Bury when fifteen and may have been educated earlier at the school of the Benedictine monks there and have been afterwards at the Benedictine house of studies at Oxford
Lying - As defined by St. Thomas Aquinas, a statement at variance with the mind
Lynch, John - Historian, b. at Galway, Ireland, 1599; d. in France, 1673; was the son of Alexander Lynch, who kept a classical school at Galway
Lyndwood, William - Bishop of St. David's, b. about 1375; d. in 1446
Lyons, Archdiocese of - Comprises the Department of the Rhone (except the Canton of Villeurbanne, which belongs to the Diocese of Grenoble) and of the Loire
Lyons, Councils of (Introduction) - This article deals only with the two general councils of 1245 and 1275
Lyons, First Council of - Innocent IV, threatened by Emperor Frederick II, arrived at Lyons 2 December, 1244, and early in 1245 summoned the bishops and princes to the council
Lyons, Second Council of - One of the most largely attended of conciliar assemblies, there being present five hundred bishops, sixty abbots, more than a thousand prelates or procurators
Lyrba - A titular see of Pamphylia Prima, known by its coins and the mention made of it by Dionysius, Perieg. 858, Ptolemy, V, 5, S, and Hierocles
Lysias - A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, mentioned by Strabo, XII, 576, Pliny, V, 29, Ptolemy, V, 2, 23, Hierocles, and the 'Notitiae episcopatuum', probably founded by Antiochus the Great about 200 B.C
Lystra - A titular see in the Province of Lycaonia, suffragan of Iconium

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