1. The Lord Jesus has admonished us, that we be good trees, and that so we may be able to bear good fruits. For He says,
Either make the tree good, and his fruit good, or else make the tree corrupt, and his fruit corrupt, for the tree is known by his fruit. When He says,
Make the tree good, and his fruit good; this of course is not an admonition, but a wholesome precept, to which obedience is necessary. But when He says,
Make the tree corrupt, and his fruit corrupt; this is not a precept that you should do it; but an admonition, that you should beware of it. For He spoke against those, who thought that although they were evil, they could speak good things or have good works. This the Lord Jesus says is impossible. For the man himself must first be changed, in order that his works may be changed. For if a man abide in his evil state, he cannot have good works; if he abide in his good state, he cannot have evil works.
2. But who was found good by the Lord, since
Christ died for the ungodly? He found them all corrupt trees, but to those who good man, that is, a good tree, was found corrupt, and made good. And if when He came He had chosen to root up the corrupt trees, what tree would have remained which did not deserve to be rooted up? But He came first to impart mercy, that He might afterwards exercise judgment, to whom it is said,
I will sing unto You O Lord, of mercy and judgment. He gave then remission of sins to those who believed in Him, He would not even take account with them of past reckonings. He gave remission of sins, He made them good trees. He delayed the ax, He gave security.
3. Of this ax does John speak, saying,
Now is the ax laid unto the root of the trees; every tree which brings not forth good fruit shall be hewn down, and cast into the fire. With this ax does the Householder in the Gospel threaten, saying,
Behold these three years I come to this tree, and find no fruit on it. Now I must clear the ground; wherefore let it be cut down. And the husbandman intercedes, saying,
Lord, let it alone this year also, till I shall dig about it and dung it; and if it bear fruit, well; and if not, then You shall come and cut it down. So the Lord has visited mankind as it were three years, that is, at three several times. The first time was before the Law; the second under the Law; the third is now, which is the time of grace. For if He did not visit mankind before the Law, whence was Abel, and Enoch, and Noe, and Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, whose Lord He was pleased to be called? And He to whom all nations belonged, as though He were the God of three men only, said, Holy Spirit, He made the Gospel to be preached throughout all the world, and yet a certain tree remained unfruitful. Still is there a certain portion of mankind, which does not yet amend itself. The husbandman intercedes; the Apostle prays for the people;
I bow my knees, he says,
4. Let each one then be a good tree; let him not suppose that he can bear good fruit, if he remain a corrupt tree. There will be no good fruit, but from the good tree. Change the heart, and the work will be changed. Root out desire, plant in charity.
For as desire is the root of all evil, so is charity the root of all good. Why then do men fret and contend one with another, saying,
What is good? O that you knew what good is! What you wish to have is not very good; this is good which you do not wish to be. For you wish to have health of body; it is good indeed; yet you can not think that to be any great good, which the wicked have as well. Thou dost wish to have gold and silver; I grant that these also are good things, but then only if you make a good use of them; and a good use of them you will not make, if you are evil yourself. And hence gold and silver are to the evil evil; to the good are good, not because gold and silver make them good; but because they find them good, they are turned to a good use. Again, you wish to have honour, it is good; but this too only if you make a good use of it. To how many has honour been the occasion of destruction! And again, to how many has honour been the instrument of good works!
5. Let us then, if we can, make a distinction as to these goods; for it is of good trees that we are speaking. And here there is nothing, which every one ought so much to think of, as to turn his eyes upon himself, to learn in himself, examine himself, inspect himself, search into himself, and find out himself; and kill what is displeasing; and long for and plant in that which is well-pleasing (to God). For when a man finds himself so empty of better goods, why is he greedy of external goods? And what profit is there in a coffer full of goods, with an empty conscience? You wish to have good things, and do you not then wish to be good yourself? Do you see not that you ought rather to blush for your good things, if your house is full of good things, and you its owner are evil? For what is there, tell me, you would wish to have that is bad. Not any one thing I am sure; neither wife; nor son; nor daughter; nor manservant; nor maidservant; nor country seat; nor a coat; nay nor a shoe; and yet you are willing to have a bad life. I pray you prefer your way of life to your shoes. All things which encompass your sight, as being of elegance and beauty, are highly prized by you; and are you so lightly esteemed by yourself, and so devoid of beauty? If the good things of which your house is full, which you have longed to possess, and feared to lose, could make answer to you, would they not cry out to you, As you wish to have us good, so do we also wish to have a good owner? And now in speechless accents do they address your Lord against you:
6. One then who has been admonished, and it may be moved to compunction by these words, may ask what is good? What is the nature of good? And whence it comes? Well is it that you have understood that it is your duty to ask this. I will answer your enquiries, and will say,
That is good which you can not lose against your will. For gold you may lose even against your will; and so you can a house; and honours, and even the health of the body; but the good whereby you are truly good, you neither receive against your will, nor lose it against your will. I enquire then,
What is the nature of this good? One of the Psalms teaches us an important matter, perchance it is even this that we are seeking for. For it says,
O you sons of men, how long will you be heavy in heart? How long will that tree be in its three years fruitlessness?
O you sons of men, how long will you be heavy in heart? What is
heavy in heart?
Why do ye love vanity, and seek after leasing? And then it goes on to say what we must really seek after;
Know ye that the Lord has magnified His Holy One? Now Christ has come, now has He been magnified, now has He risen again, and ascended into heaven, now is His Name preached through the world:
How long will you be heavy in heart? Let the times past suffice; now that that Holy One has been magnified,
How long will you be heavy in heart? After the three years, what remains but the ax?
How long will you be heavy in heart? Why do ye love vanity, and seek after leasing? Vain, useless, frivolous, fleeting things are these still sought after, now that Christ the Holy One has been so magnified? Truth now is crying aloud, and is vanity still sought after?
How long will you be heavy in heart?
7. With good reason is this world severely scourged; for the world has known now its Master's words.
And the servant, He says,
that knew not his Master's will, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. Why? That he may seek after his Master's will. The servant then who knew not His will, this was the world, before
He magnified His Holy One; it was
the servant who knew not his Master's will, and therefore
shall be beaten with few stripes. But the servant who now knows his Master's will, that is now, since the Godhead
sanctified His Holy One, and
does not His will, shall be beaten with many stripes. What marvel then, if the world be now much beaten?
It is the servant which knew his Master's will, and did commit things worthy of stripes. Let him then not refuse to be beaten with many stripes; since if in unrighteousness he will not hear his teacher, in righteousness must he feel his avenger. At least, let him not murmur against Him that chastens him, when he sees that he is worthy of stripes, that so he may attain mercy; through Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns, with God the Father and the Holy Spirit, for ever and ever. Amen.
Source. Translated by R.G. MacMullen. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, First Series, Vol. 6. Edited by Philip Schaff. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1888.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. <http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/160322.htm>.
Contact information. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. My email address is feedback732 at newadvent.org. (To help fight spam, this address might change occasionally.) Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads.