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To John, Bishop.
Gregory to John, Bishop of Ravenna.
It is not long since certain things had been told us about your Fraternity concerning which we remember having declared ourselves in full, when Castorius, notary of the holy church over which we preside, went into your parts. For it had come to our ears that some things were being done in your church contrary to custom and to the way of humility, which alone, as you well know, exalts the priestly office. Now, if your Wisdom had received our admonitions kindly or with episcopal seriousness, you ought not to have been incensed by them, but have corrected these same things with thanks to us. For it is contrary to ecclesiastical use, if even unjust correction (the which be far from us) is not most patiently borne.
But your Fraternity has been too much moved; and when, in the swelling of your heart, as if to justify yourself, you wrote that thou did not use the pallium except after the sons of the Church had been dismissed from the sacristy , and at the time of mass, and in solemn litanies, you made acknowledgment in words with most manifest truth of having usurped something contrary to the usage of the Church in general. For how can it be that at a time of ashes and sackcloth, through the streets among the noises of the people you could do lawfully what you have disclaimed the doing of as being unlawful in the assembly of the poor and nobles, and in the sacristy of the Church? Yet this, dearest brother, is not, we think, unknown to you; that it has hardly ever been heard of any metropolitan in any parts of the world that he has claimed to himself the use of the pallium except at the time of mass. And that you knew well this custom of the Church in general you have shown most plainly by your epistles, in which you have sent to us appended the precept of our predecessor John of blessed memory, to the effect that all the customs conceded in the way of privilege to you and your church by our predecessors should be retained. You acknowledge, then, that the custom of the Church in general is different, seeing that you claim the right of doing what you do on the score of privilege. Thus, as we think, we can have no remaining doubtfulness in this matter. For either the usage of all metropolitans should be observed also by your Fraternity, or, if you say that something has been specially conceded to your church, it is for your side to show the precept of former pontiffs of the Roman City wherein these things have been conceded to the Church of Ravenna. But, if this is not shown, it remains, seeing that you establish your claim to do such things on the score neither of general custom nor of privilege, that you prove yourself to have usurped in what you have done. And what shall we say to the future judge, most beloved brother, if we defend the use of that heavy yoke and chain on our neck with a view, I do not say to ecclesiastical, but to a certain secular dignity; judging ourselves to be lowered if we are without so great a weight even for a short space of time? We desire to be adorned with the pallium, being, it may be, unadorned in character; whereas nothing shines more splendidly on a bishop's neck than humility.
It is therefore the duty of your Fraternity, if you are firmly determined to defend your honours with any kind of arguments, either to follow the use of the generality without written authority, or to defend yourself under privileges shown in writing. Or, if lastly you do neither, we will not have you set an example of presumption of this sort to other metropolitans. But, lest you should perchance think that we, in thus writing to you, have neglected what belongs to fraternal charity, know that careful search has been made in our archives for the privileges of your Church. And indeed some things have been found, sufficient to obviate entirely the aims of your Fraternity, but nothing to support the contentions of your Church on the points in question. For even concerning the very custom of your Church which you allege against us, which custom we wrote before should be proved on your side, we would have you know that we have already taken thought sufficiently, having questioned our sons, Peter the deacon and Gaudiosus the primicerius , and also Michael the guardian (defensorem) of our see, or others who on various commissions have been sent by our predecessors to Ravenna; and they have most positively denied that you have done these things in their presence. It is therefore apparent that what was done in secret must have been an unlawful usurpation. Hence what has been latently introduced can have no firm ground to justify its continuance. What things, then, thou or your predecessors have presumed to do superfluously do thou, having regard to charity, and with brotherly kindness, study to correct. To no degree attempt — I do not say of your own accord, but after the fashion set by others, even your predecessors — to deviate from the rule of humility. For, to sum up shortly what I have said above, I admonish you to this effect; that unless you can show that this has been allowed you by my predecessors in the way of privilege, thou presume not any more to use the pallium in the streets, lest you come not to have even for mass what you audaciously usurp even in the streets. But as to your sitting in the sacristy, and receiving the sons of the Church with the pallium on (which thing your Fraternity has both done and disclaimed), we now for the present make no complaint; since, following the decision of synods, we refuse to punish minor faults, which are denied. Yet we know this to have been done once and again, and we prohibit its being done any more. But let your Fraternity take careful heed, lest presumption which in its commencement is pardoned be more severely visited if it proceeds further.
Furthermore, you have complained that certain of the sacerdotal order in the city of Ravenna are involved in serious criminal charges. Their case we desire you either to examine on the spot, or to send them hither (unless, indeed, difficulty of proof owing to the distance of the places stands in the way of this), that the case may be examined here. But if, relying on the patronage of great people, which we do not believe, they should scorn to submit to your judgment or to come to us, and should refuse contumaciously to answer to the charges made against them, we desire that after your second and third admonition, thou interdict them from the ministry of the sacred office, and report to us in writing of their contumacy, that we may deliberate how you ought to make a thorough enquiry into their doings, and correct them according to canonical definitions. Let, therefore, your Fraternity know that we are most fully absolved from responsibility in this case, seeing that we have committed to you a thorough investigation of the matter; and that, if all their sins should pass unpunished, the whole weight of this enquiry redounds to the peril of your soul. And know, beloved, that you will have no excuse at the future judgment, if you not correct the excesses of your clergy with the utmost severity of canonical strictness, and if you allow any against whom such excesses shall have been proved to profane sacred orders any longer.
Further, what you have written in defense of the use of napkins by your clergy is strenuously opposed by our own clergy, who say that this has never been granted to any other Church whatever, and that neither have the clergy of Ravenna, either there or in the Roman city, presumed, to their knowledge, in any such way, nor, if it has been attempted in the way of furtive usurpation, does it form a precedent. But, even though there had been such presumption in any church whatever, they assert that it ought to be corrected, not being by grant of the Roman pontiff, but merely a surreptitious presumption. But we, to save the honour of your Fraternity, though against the wish of our aforesaid clergy, still allow the use of napkins to your first deacons (whose former use of them has been testified to us by some), but only when in attendance upon you. The use of them, at any other time, or by any other persons, we most strictly prohibit.
Source. Translated by James Barmby. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 12. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1895.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. <http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/360203056.htm>.
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